Kulon Progo, Indonesia
There is a growing trend towards small-scale forest operators engaging in certification initiatives in response to growing demands for certified timber. This paper aimed to analyse whether certified smallholders gain better access to timber markets and better financial incentives, using three smallholder forest enterprises from Gunungkidul and Kulon Progo districts, Java, Indonesia as case studies of different managerial operations. Two were farmer cooperatives and the other was an external trading company in partnership with village-level farmer groups. Different certification schemes and managerial approaches were analysed whether such factors influenced the ability of smallholders to access certified timber markets and obtain improved offers for their timber.