This study seeks to contribute to such knowledge and methods, by providing a framework which can be used to examine the impacts of major investments by the private sector, institutional investors and governments in modern, large scale plantations in Africa, based on cases in East Africa. Practices and context can be very different from plantations in temperate and developed regions (Evans 2009,FAO 2010). Inherent in this framework is a methodology for an impact evaluation of plantation forestry and its value chain. This includes the company, employees, suppliers such as outgrower agroforesters, associated industrial operations and customers, also at the impact for stakeholders, such as investors, communities, local and national governments impacted by these plantation forests and associated industrial activities. The general framework developed is being tested and used , first to create a baseline in 2016 and then an impact evaluation in 2018/2019.